Bone crop moniliosis: control, resistance of varieties
Moniliosis (monilial burn, gray fruit rot) is one of the most common and harmful diseases of stone fruits. They are affected by flowers, ovaries, branches, and fruits.
By the nature of the manifestation of the disease, two forms are distinguished – a monilial burn and fruit rot.
Meiosis affects all stone fruits. In Crimea, the disease is most harmful to apricot, cherry, cherry, almond. Usually, a monilial burn means the spring form of the disease. It manifests itself in a sudden browning and drying of flowers, and then leaves, shoots, and twigs. The disease on them develops very quickly. Literally, within a few days the whole tree becomes affected and in appearance resembles a burnt one – this is the name of the disease.
In spring, apricot and cherry monthly develop so strongly that not only individual trees but also entire tracts of the garden are affected. Moniliosis develops strongly in the years when heavy rains occur in the spring before and during flowering and warm and humid weather is maintained for a long time. On the affected organs in the spring in warm weather, one can see massive occurrences of ash-gray spore-bearing fungal pads. Infection with moniliasis is carried out through a flower. The spores of the fungus fall on the stigma either with raindrops, or with the help of insects, or are carried by the wind. In wet weather, ash-gray pads of conidial sporulation are clearly visible on all parts of the flower and on the branches. Withered and browned leaves and flowers remain for a long time hanging on a tree, not crumbling.
The second form of the disease is fruit rot: initially a small dark spot appears on the fetus. It grows rapidly in size and can cover the entire fetus. Then, on the surface of the affected fetus, a lot of scattered or merging ash-gray spots of mushroom sporulation cushions are formed. Sick fruits shrink and dry.
In the spring, mummified fruits become one of the sources of disease resumption. And the infection penetrates through mechanical damage to the skin of the fruit, as well as damage by pests, birds, hail.
Varieties of cherries Lyubskaya, Nadezhda Krupskaya, Fertile Michurina, Erfurt, Griot Severny and others are greatly affected by moniliosis; Apricot varieties Alexander New Kestl, Bulbon; varieties of cherries Napoleon pink, Skorospelka, Homestead, Bagration, etc.
Autumn and spring gathering of mummified fruits and digging of soil in near-stem circles. Spring pruning (after flowering) is also highly effective for pruning affected (15–20 cm below the visible border) shoots and branches. Cutting of affected shoots must be carried out 10-15 days after flowering when the line between healthy and diseased tissue is clearly manifested.
Harvesting rotten fruit and carrion during the summer
The defeat of fruits with monilial rot decreases with careful and high-quality protection from damage by pests. And to prevent cracking of the fruits should not be allowed sudden changes in soil moisture in the garden. It makes sense to ripen the soil before ripening.
When choosing varieties for the garden, give preference to resistance to moniliasis.
The early English, double Shpanka, Kaliningrad, Anadol, Griot of Ostheim, Podbelskaya and others are less affected by the disease.
Moniliosis resistant varieties of cherries Francis, Cassini early, Krupnoplodnaya, Valery Chkalov, Dybera black, Melitopol black, Melitopol early, etc.
Slightly affected by the disease are apricot varieties Nikitsky, Pineapple, Hardy, Salgirsky, Shalah.
In strong foci of the disease, early spring (before budding) and late autumn (after leaf fall) are treated with trees and soil under them with nitrafen (200-300 g per 10 l of water) or iron sulfate (300 g per 10 l of water).
If damp, cool weather is maintained in the spring and there is a danger that the flowering of cherry and apricot trees will take place in the rains, it is advisable to spray the plants before the fruit buds open with 3% Bordeaux liquid. And the second treatment with 1% Bordeaux liquid or 0.3-0.4% copper chloride is carried out after flowering.
Timely and high-quality protection of stone fruits from fruit damage by pests is a reliable guarantee of obtaining healthy fruits.